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Home » » Installing a MySQL Source Distribution.

Installing a MySQL Source Distribution.

Before you proceed with the source installation, check first to see if our binary is available for your platform and if it will work for you. We put in a lot of e ort into making sure that our binaries are built with the best possible options.

You need the following tools to build and install MySQL from source:
• GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
• A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Sun tar is known to have problems.
• A working ANSI C++ compiler. gcc >= 2.95.2, egcs >= 1.0.2 or egcs 2.91.66, SGI C++, and SunPro C++ are some of the compilers that are known to work. libg++ isnot needed when using gcc. gcc 2.7.x has a bug that makes it impossible to compile some perfectly legal C++ files, such as ‘sql/sql_base.cc’. If you only have gcc 2.7.x, you must upgrade your gcc to be able to compile MySQL. gcc 2.8.1 is also known to have problems on some platforms so it should be avoided if there exists a new compiler
for the platform.gcc >= 2.95.2 is recommended when compiling MySQL Version 3.23.x.

• A good make program. GNU make is always recommended and is sometimes required.
If you have problems, we recommend trying GNU make 3.75 or newer.
If you are using a recent version of gcc, recent enough to understand -fno-exceptions option, it is very important that you use it. Otherwise, you may compile a binary that crashes randomly. We also recommend that you use -felide-contructors and -fno-rtti along with -fno-exceptions. When in doubt, do the following:
CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
On most systems this will give you a fast and stable binary.
If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to mysql@lists.mysql.com.
Even if the problem isn’t a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the ‘scripts’ directory after you unpack the distribution.

Quick Installation Overview
The basic commands you must execute to install a MySQL source distribution are:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> gunzip <> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> chown -R root /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
If you want have support for InnoDB tables, you should edit the /etc/my.cnf file and remove the # character before the parameters that starts with innodb
If you start from a source RPM, then do the following:
shell> rpm --rebuild MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm
This will make a binary RPM that you can install.
You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.
A more detailed description follows.
To install a source distribution, follow the steps below, then proceed to post-installation initialisation and testing:
1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it.
2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed
3. If you are interested in using Berkeley DB tables with MySQL, you will need to obtain a patched version of the Berkeley DB source code. Please read the chapter on Berkeley
DB tables before proceeding.
MySQL source distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names
like ‘mysql-VERSION.tar.gz’, where VERSION is a number like 4.0.1-alpha.
4. Add a user and group for mysqld to run as:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
These commands add the mysql group, and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may di er slightly on di erent versions of Unix. They may also becalled adduser and addgroup. You may wish to call the user and group something else instead of mysql.
5. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
MySQL Technical Reference for Version 4.0.1-alpha
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf - This command creates a directory named ‘mysql-VERSION’. 6. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution: shell> cd mysql-VERSION
Note that currently you must configure and build MySQL from this top-level directory.You can not build it in a di erent directory.
7. Configure the release and compile everything:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
When you run configure, you might want to specify some options. Run ./configure
--help for a list of options.

If configure fails, and you are going to send mail to mysql@lists.mysql.com to ask for assistance, please include any lines from ‘config.log’ that you think can help solve the problem. Also include the last couple of lines of output from configure if configure aborts.
8. Install everything:
shell> make install
You might need to run this command as root.
9. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven’t installed MySQL before):
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
Note that MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!
10. Change ownership of binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as:
shell> chown -R root /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user, the second
one changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user, and the third
one changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
11. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface.
12. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script.
After everything has been installed, you should initialise and test your distribution:
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &

MySQL Installation
If that command fails immediately with mysqld daemon ended then you can find some information in the file ‘mysql-data-directory/’hostname’.err’. The likely reason is that you already have another mysqld server running.

Applying Patches
Sometimes patches appear on the mailing list or are placed in the patches area of the MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Patches/).
To apply a patch from the mailing list, save the message in which the patch appears in a file, change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree, and run these commands:
shell> patch -p1 <> rm config.cache
shell> make clean
Patches from the FTP site are distributed as plain text files or as files compressed with gzip.
Apply a plain patch as shown above for mailing list patches. To apply a compressed patch, change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree and run these commands:
shell> gunzip <> rm config.cache
shell> make clean
After applying a patch, follow the instructions for a normal source install, beginning with the ./configure step. After running the make install step, restart your MySQL server.
You may need to bring down any currently running server before you run make install.
(Use mysqladmin shutdown to do this.) Some systems do not allow you to install a new version of a program if it replaces the version that is currently executing.

Typical configure Options
The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure your MySQL distribution. Typically you do this using options on the configure command line. You can also a ect configure using certain environment variables. See Appendix F [Environment variables], page 695. For a list of options supported by configure, run this command:
shell> ./configure --help
Some of the more commonly-used configure options are described below:
• To compile just the MySQL client libraries and client programs and not the server, use the --without-server option:
shell> ./configure --without-server
If you don’t have a C++ compiler, mysql will not compile (it is the one client program that requires C++). In this case, you can remove the code in configure that tests for the C++ compiler and then run ./configure with the --without-server option.
The compile step will still try to build mysql, but you can ignore any warnings about

Technical Reference for Version 4.0.1-alpha
‘mysql.cc’. (If make stops, try make -k to tell it to continue with the rest of the build even if errors occur.)
• If you want to get a embedded MySQL library (libmysqld.a) you should use the
--with-embedded-server option.
• If you don’t want your log files and database directories located under ‘/usr/local/var’, use a configure command, something like one of these:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
The first command changes the installation prefix so that everything is installed under ‘/usr/local/mysql’ rather than the default of ‘/usr/local’. The second command preserves the default installation prefix, but overrides the default location for database directories (normally ‘/usr/local/var’) and changes it to /usr/local/mysql/data.

After you have compiled MySQL, you can change these options with option files.
• If you are using Unix and you want the MySQL socket located somewhere other than the default location (normally in the directory ‘/tmp’ or ‘/var/run’) use a configurecommand like this:
shell> ./configure --with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
Note that the given file must be an absolute pathname! You can also later change the location ‘mysql.sock’ by using the MySQL option files.
• If you want to compile statically linked programs (for example, to make a binary distribution, to get more speed, or to work around problems with some RedHat Linux distributions), run configure like this:
shell> ./configure --with-client-ldflags=-all-static \
• If you are using gcc and don’t have libg++ or libstdc++ installed, you can tell configure to use gcc as your C++ compiler:
shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure
When you use gcc as your C++ compiler, it will not attempt to link in libg++ or libstdc++.
Here is some common environment variables to set depending on the compiler you are using:
gcc CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors"
egcs 1.0.3a CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno- exceptions -fno-rtti"
gcc 2.95.2 CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -
mpentiumpro -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
pgcc 2.90.29 or newer
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double" CXX=gcc
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double -felide-
constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
In most cases you can get a reasonably optimal MySQL binary by using the options
from the above and adding the following options to the configure line:
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
The full configure line would in other words be something like the following for all recent gcc versions:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
The binaries we provide on the MySQL web site at http://www.mysql.com/ are all compiled with full optimisation and should be perfect for most users
If the build fails and produces errors about your compiler or linker not being able to create the shared library ‘libmysqlclient.so.#’ (‘#’ is a version number), you can work around this problem by giving the --disable-shared option to configure. In this case, configure will not build a shared libmysqlclient.so.# library.

• You can configure MySQL not to use DEFAULT column values for non-NULL columns (that is, columns that are not allowed to be NULL). This causes INSERT statements to generate an error unless you explicitly specify values for all columns that require a non-NULL value. To suppress use of default values, run configure like this:
• By default, MySQL uses the ISO-8859-1 (Latin1) character set. To change the default set, use the --with-charset option:
shell> ./configure --with-charset=CHARSET
CHARSET may be one of big5, cp1251, cp1257, czech, danish, dec8, dos, euc_kr, gb2312, gbk, german1, hebrew, hp8, hungarian, koi8_ru, koi8_ukr, latin1, latin2, sjis, swe7, tis620, ujis, usa7, or win1251ukr.
Warning: If you change character sets after having created any tables, you will have to run myisamchk -r -q on every table. Your indexes may be sorted incorrectly otherwise.
(This can happen if you install MySQL, create some tables, then reconfigure MySQL to use a di erent character set and reinstall it.)
With the option --with-extra-charset=LIST you can define which additional character sets should be incompiled in the server.
Here LIST is either a list of character set separated with space, complex to include all characters that can’t be dynamically loaded or all to include all character sets into the binaries.
• To configure MySQL with debugging code, use the --with-debug option:
shell> ./configure --with-debug
This causes a safe memory allocator to be included that can find some errors and that provides output about what is happening.
• If your client programs are using threads, you need to also compile a thread-safe version of the MySQL client library with the --enable-thread-safe-client configure options. This will create a libmysqlclient_r library with which you should link your
threaded applications.

Installing from the Development Source Tree
Caution: You should read this section only if you are interested in helping us test our new code. If you just want to get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use a standard release distribution (either a source or binary distribution will do).
To obtain our most recent development source tree, use these instructions:
1. Download BitKeeper from http://www.bitmover.com/cgi-bin/download.cgi. You will need Bitkeeper 2.0 or newer to access our repository.
2. Follow the instructions to install it.
3. After BitKeeper is installed, use this command if you want to clone the MySQL 3.23 branch:
shell> bk clone bk://work.mysql.com:7000 mysql
To clone the 4.0 branch, use this command instead:
shell> bk clone bk://work.mysql.com:7001 mysql-4.0
The initial download of the source tree may take a while, depending on the speed of your connection; be patient.
4. You will need GNU autoconf 2.13, automake 1.4, libtool, and m4 to run the next set of commands. Note that the new versions of autoconf (2.52) and automake (1.5) do not work.
If you get some strange error during this stage, check that you really have libtool installed!
shell> cd mysql
shell> bk -r edit
shell> aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake;
shell> ./configure # Add your favorite options here
shell> make
A collection of our standard configure scripts is located in the ‘BUILD/’ subdirectory. If you are lazy, you can use ‘BUILD/compile-pentium-debug’. To compile on a di erent architecture, modify the script removing ags that are Pentium-specific.
5. When the build is done, run make install. Be careful with this on a production machine; the command may overwrite your live release installation. If you have another installation of MySQL, we recommand that you run ./configure with di erent values for the prefix, tcp-port, and unix-socket-path options than those used for your production server.
6. Play hard with your new installation and try to make the new features crash.
7. If you have gotten to the make stage and the distribution does not compile, please report it to bugs@lists.mysql.com. If you have installed the latest versions of the required GNU tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you execute aclocal and get a command not found error or a similar problem, do not report it. Instead, make sure all the necessary tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so your shell can find them.
8. After the initial bk clone operation to get the source tree, you should run bk pull periodically to get the updates.
9. You can examine the change history for the tree with all the di s by using bk sccstool.
If you see some funny di s or code that you have a question about, do not hesitate to send e-mail to internals@lists.mysql.com. Also, if you think you have a better idea on how to do something, send an e-mail to the same address with a patch. bk diffs will produce a patch for you after you have made changes to the source. If you do not have the time to code your idea, just send a description.
10. BitKeeper has a nice help utility that you can access via bk helptool.

Problems Compiling?
All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on Solaris using gcc. On other systems, warnings may occur due to di erences in system include files.
The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do need to reconfigure, take note of the following:
• If configure is run after it already has been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in ‘config.cache’.
When configure starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.
• Each time you run configure, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first, because they were compiled using di erent configuration options.
To prevent old configuration information or object files from being used, run these commands before rerunning configure:
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean
Alternatively, you can run make distclean.
The list below describes some of the problems compiling MySQL that have been found to occur most often:
• If you get errors when compiling ‘sql_yacc.cc’, such as the ones shown below, you have probably run out of memory or swap space:
Internal compiler error: program cc1plus got fatal signal 11 or Out of virtual memory

Virtual memory exhausted
The problem is that gcc requires huge amounts of memory to compile ‘sql_yacc.cc’ with inline functions. Try running configure with the --with-low-memory option:
shell> ./configure --with-low-memory
This option causes -fno-inline to be added to the compile line if you are using gcc and -O0 if you are using something else. You should try the --with-low-memory option even if you have so much memory and swap space that you think you can’t possibly have run out. This problem has been observed to occur even on systems with generous hardware configurations, and the --with-low-memory option usually fixes it.
• By default, configure picks c++ as the compiler name and GNU c++ links with -lg++.
If you are using gcc, that behavior can cause problems during configuration such as this:
configure: error: installation or configuration problem:
C++ compiler cannot create executables.
You might also observe problems during compilation related to g++, libg++, or libstdc++.
One cause of these problems is that you may not have g++, or you may have g++ but not libg++, or libstdc++. Take a look at the ‘config.log’ file. It should contain the exact reason why your c++ compiler didn’t work! To work around these problems, you can use gcc as your C++ compiler. Try setting the environment variable CXX to "gcc -O3".
For example:
shell> CXX="gcc -O3" ./configure
This works because gcc compiles C++ sources as well as g++ does, but does not link in libg++ or libstdc++ by default.
Another way to fix these problems, of course, is to install g++, libg++ and libstdc++.
• If your compile fails with errors, such as any of the following, you must upgrade your version of make to GNU make:
making all in mit-pthreads
make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
Badly formed macro assignment
make: file ‘Makefile’ line 18: Must be a separator (:
pthread.h: No such file or directory
Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs.
GNU make Version 3.75 is known to work.
• If you want to define ags to be used by your C or C++ compilers, do so by adding the ags to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables. You can also specify the compiler names this way using CC and CXX. For example:
shell> CC=gcc
shell> CFLAGS=-O3
shell> CXX=gcc
shell> CXXFLAGS=-O3

MySQL Installation
See Section 2.2.6 [MySQL binaries], page 64, for a list of ag definitions that have been
found to be useful on various systems.
• If you get an error message like this, you need to upgrade your gcc compiler:
client/libmysql.c:273: parse error before ‘__attribute__’
gcc 2.8.1 is known to work, but we recommend using gcc 2.95.2 or egcs 1.0.3a instead.
• If you get errors such as those shown below when compiling mysqld, configure didn’t correctly detect the type of the last argument to accept(), getsockname(), or getpeername():
cxx: Error: mysqld.cc, line 645: In this statement, the referenced type of the pointer value "&length" is "unsigned long", which is not compatible with "int".
new_sock = accept(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&cAddr, &length);
To fix this, edit the ‘config.h’ file (which is generated by configure). Look for these lines:
/* Define as the base type of the last arg to accept */
Change XXX to size_t or int, depending on your operating system. (Note that you will have to do this each time you run configure, because configure regenerates ‘config.h’.)
• The ‘sql_yacc.cc’ file is generated from ‘sql_yacc.yy’. Normally the build process doesn’t need to create ‘sql_yacc.cc’, because MySQL comes with an already generated copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this error:
"sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install bison (the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.
• If you need to debug mysqld or a MySQL client, run configure with the --with debug option, then recompile and link your clients with the new client library.

MIT-pthreads Notes

This section describes some of the issues involved in using MIT-pthreads.
Note that on Linux you should NOT use MIT-pthreads but install LinuxThreads!
• On most systems, you can force MIT-pthreads to be used by running configure with the --with-mit-threads option:
shell> ./configure --with-mit-threads
Building in a non-source directory is not supported when using MIT-pthreads, because we want to minimise our changes to this code.

• The checks that determine whether or not to use MIT-pthreads occur only during the part of the configuration process that deals with the server code. If you have configured the distribution using --without-server to build only the client code, clients will not know whether or not MIT-pthreads is being used and will use Unix socket connections by default. Because Unix sockets do not work under MIT-pthreads, this means you will need to use -h or --host when you run client programs.
• When MySQL is compiled using MIT-pthreads, system locking is disabled by default for performance reasons. You can tell the server to use system locking with the --use-locking option.
• Sometimes the pthread bind() command fails to bind to a socket without any error message (at least on Solaris). The result is that all connections to the server fail. For example:
shell> mysqladmin version
mysqladmin: connect to server at ’’ failed;
error: ’Can’t connect to mysql server on localhost (146)’
The solution to this is to kill the mysqld server and restart it. This has only happened to us when we have forced the server down and done a restart immediately.
• With MIT-pthreads, the sleep() system call isn’t interruptible with SIGINT (break).
This is only noticeable when you run mysqladmin --sleep. You must wait for the sleep() call to terminate before the interrupt is served and the process stops.
• When linking, you may receive warning messages like these (at least on Solaris); they can be ignored:
ld: warning: symbol ‘_iob’ has differing sizes:
(file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
/my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
ld: warning: symbol ‘__iob’ has differing sizes:
(file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
/my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
• Some other warnings also can be ignored:
implicit declaration of function ‘int strtoll(...)’
implicit declaration of function ‘int strtoul(...)’
• We haven’t gotten readline to work with MIT-pthreads. (This isn’t needed, but may
be interesting for someone.)


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