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Monday, August 24, 2015

Google Art Project

Subject Matters

The subject of a work of art can offer an important clue to understanding its place in history. Check out these clues:

  • Ancient Greeks and Romans used art to represent a wide variety of subjects. These included portraits of gods, rituals, heroes, rulers, and thinkers.
  • Medieval subjects focused largely on the spiritual (representations of Christ, Mary, the saints, miracles, etc.).
  • Renaissance subjects expanded beyond the religious to include classical and literary subjects, portraits, and the representation of the figure in a physical setting (landscape, interior, etc.).
  • Baroque artists added pure landscape (in other words, a landscape that wasn’t a setting for another story), genre (scenes of everyday life), and still life.
  • Modern art from the 19th century added new subjects including urban and suburban life.

Can you identify the subject matter and locate these images in their historical period?

  1. Hans Bollongier, Still-Life with Flowers, 1639 (Rijksmuseum)
  2. Auguste Renoir, Dance at la Moulin de la Galette (Musée d’Orsay)
  3. Sandro Botticelli, La Primavera, 1481-82 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Virgin and Child in Majesty, 1150-1200 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
  5. Aphrodite (Venus of Taurida), Ancient Greece, 2nd century BC (The State Hermitage Museum)
  1. Ancient
  2. Medieval
  3. Renaissance
  4. Baroque
  5. Modern

Show Answers

Answers: A-5, B-4, C-3, D-1, and E-2

Works of art
  1. Baroque: Hans Bollongier, Still-Life with Flowers, 1639 (Rijksmuseum)
  2. Modern: Auguste Renoir, Dance at la Moulin de la Galette (Musée d’Orsay)
  3. Renaissance: Sandro Botticelli, La Primavera, 1481-82 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Medieval: Virgin and Child in Majesty, 1150-1200 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
  5. Ancient: Aphrodite (Venus of Taurida), Ancient Greece, 2nd century BC (The State Hermitage Museum)

If the Shoe Fits…

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The Google Art Project is a trove of visual inspiration for creatives. Here’s an idea to get you started.

Match these shoes to their owner.

  1. God of War
  2. Emperor
  3. King
  4. Venus
  5. Saint
  6. Jesus
  7. Lover
  8. Little Girl
  9. Aristocrat
  10. Peasant

Show Answers

Answers: A-5, B-7, C-6, D-3, E-2, F-1, G-9, H-8, I-4, J-10

Works of art
  1. Saint’s shoes. Giovanni Bellini, St. Francis in the Desert, c. 1475-78 (The Frick Collection)
  2. Lover’s shoes. Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Progress of Love: The Meeting, 1771-3 (The Frick Collection)
  3. Christ’s shoes. Altobello Melone, The Road to Emmaus, c. 1516-17 (The National Gallery, London)
  4. Emperor’s shoes. Jacques Louis David, The Coronation of the Emperor and Empress, 2 December 1804, 1808-22 (Palace of Versailles)
  5. Aristocrat’s shoes. Jacques Louis David, The Coronation of the Emperor and Empress, 2 December 1804, 1808-22 (Palace of Versailles)
  6. Little girls shoes. James McNeil Whistler, Harmony in Green and Rose: The Music Room, 1860-61 (Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian)
  7. God of War’s shoes. Sandro Botticelli, La Primavera, 1481-82 (Uffizi Gallery)
  8. Venus’s shoes. Sandro Botticelli, La Primavera, 1481-2 (Uffizi Gallery)
  9. King’s shoes. Antoine-François Callet, Louis XVI, King of France and Navarre (1754-1793), wearing his grand royal costume in 1779, 1789 (Palace of Versailles)
  10. Peasant’s shoes. Max Liebermann, The Flax Barn at Laren, 1887 (Alte Nationalgalerie)

The Shape of Time

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The roughly 1500 year span, between the fall of the Roman Empire (c. 300 C.E.) and the beginning of our Modern era (c. 1750), is broadly divided into the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods. Each era found a unique way to shape human figures and the spaces they inhabit—an expression of the values of that particular period. Here are some simple ways to recognize these strategies.

Medieval (c. 300-1420)

Medieval artists were interested in the invisible realm of the soul, and often used a flat gold background to represent the heavenly. They were influenced by the East, specifically Byzantine culture, which had its capital in Constantinople (modern Istanbul). As a result, figures were rendered in a highly stylized manner, unnaturally tall and flat, with elongated, elegant features.

Renaissance (c. 1400-1600)

Renaissance artists were more interested in the world we can see than their medieval predecessors. Artists in the Renaissance placed their more weighty, more three dimensional figures in a physical space. These artists also used strong horizontal and vertical lines or pyramids that convey balance and stability.

Baroque (c. 1600-1750)

The Baroque favored more energized compositions that use diagonals and strong contrasts of light and dark. Baroque paintings can feel off balance as the compositions set the picture in motion.

Match the images to the styles below.

  1. Medieval
  2. Renaissance
  3. Baroque
  1. Sandro Botticelli, Madonna with Saints, 1485 (Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin)
  2. Duccio, The Rucellai Madonna, c. 1278-1318 (Uffizi Gallery)
  3. Caravaggio, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1603-04 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Quieten Massys, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Angels, c. 1495 (The National Gallery, London)
  5. Antonio de Solario, The Virgin and Child with Saint John, c. 1500-10 (The National Gallery, London)
  6. Andrey Rublev, Holy Trinity (Troitsa), 1425-27 (The State Tretyakov Gallery)
  7. Processional Cross, 1150-74 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
  8. Rembrandt, Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, c. 1659 (Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin)
  9. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Holofernes, 1620-21 (Uffizi Gallery)

Show Answers

Answers: 1-B, 2-A, 3-B, 4-B, 5-B, 6-A, 7-A, 8-C, 9-C

Works of art
  1. Sandro Botticelli, Madonna with Saints, 1485 (Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin)
  2. Duccio, The Rucellai Madonna, c. 1278-1318 (Uffizi Gallery)
  3. Caravaggio, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1603-04 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Quieten Massys, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Angels, c. 1495 (The National Gallery, London)
  5. Antonio de Solario, The Virgin and Child with Saint John, c. 1500-10 (The National Gallery, London)
  6. Andrey Rublev, Holy Trinity (Troitsa), 1425-27 (The State Tretyakov Gallery)
  7. Processional Cross, 1150-74 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
  8. Rembrandt, Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, c. 1659 (Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin)
  9. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Holofernes, 1620-21 (Uffizi Gallery)

Toward the Ideal

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The first part of the Italian Renaissance, until Leonardo da Vinci’s emergence in the 1480s, is known as the Early Renaissance. The latter period is known as the High Renaissance. In the Early Renaissance, artists began to represent the figure nude, and in motion, for the first time since antiquity. In the High Renaissance, artists created figures that moved elegantly and gracefully in space and sought an ideal, perfect beauty.

Can you match theses images to their stylistic period?

  1. Raphael, Madonna of the Goldfinch, 1505-06 (Uffizi Gallery)
  2. Verrochio (with Leonardo da Vinci), Baptism of Chirst, 1470-75 (Uffizi Gallery)
  3. Titian, Flora, 1515-17 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Andrea del Castagno, Pippo Spano, c. 1448 (Uffizi Gallery)
  1. Early Renaissance
  2. High Renaissance

Show Answers

Answers: 1-A, 2-B, 3-A, 4-B

Works of art
  1. Raphael, Madonna of the Goldfinch, 1505-06 (Uffizi Gallery)
  2. Verrochio (with Leonardo da Vinci), Baptism of Chirst, 1470-75 (Uffizi Gallery)
  3. Titian, Flora, 1515-17 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Andrea del Castagno, Pippo Spano, c. 1448 (Uffizi Gallery)

Reading Between the Folds

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In the 1400s, the Renaissance evolved in both Italy and Northern Europe (in what is today Belgium and Holland). In fact, museums often divide their European painting galleries by geography. In the Italian Renaissance, drapery flows and falls very naturally, while in the Northern Renaissance, artists often depicted drapery with complicated angular folds that almost look like fragments of broken glass. Can you spot the Northern Renaissance painting?

  1. Robert Campin, Triptych with the Annunciation, known as the "Merode Altarpiece," c. 1427-32 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
  2. Filippo Lippi, Madonna and Child with Two Angels, c. 1460-65 (Uffizi Gallery)
  3. Domenico Veneziano, St. Lucy Altarpiece, c. 1445-47 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1483-85 (Uffizi Gallery)

Show Answers

Answers: #1

Works of art
  1. Robert Campin, Triptych with the Annunciation, known as the "Merode Altarpiece," c. 1427-32 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
  2. Filippo Lippi, Madonna and Child with Two Angels, c. 1460-65 (Uffizi Gallery)
  3. Domenico Veneziano, St. Lucy Altarpiece, c. 1445-47 (Uffizi Gallery)
  4. Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1483-85 (Uffizi Gallery)

How was that Made?

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Material can tell us a lot about a work of art. The ancient Greeks often cast sculpture in bronze while Romans often carved marble. Some of the earliest paintings of the Renaissance were made from egg tempera. Later, artists switched to oil. There are lots of reasons for these choices including cost, technical knowledge, the availability of a given material, and taste.

  • Fresco, a water based paint applied to damp plaster, is often used to cover large walls. Fresco has less saturated colors because the intensity of the pigments are softened by the white of the plaster.
  • Watercolor, a translucent medium, is used for small, finely detailed paintings on paper.
  • Tempera, a raw egg yolk medium dries quickly once it is applied to a surface, so artists generally use it only in small, relatively short brush strokes. This also means that colors can’t be mixed together on the surface of the painting.
  • Oil paint, a more fluid medium that takes much longer to dry, allows artists to create longer brush strokes and to mix paint directly on the surface of the canvas.

Can you tell which mediums were used in the details below?

  1. Édouard Manet, In the Conservatory, 1878-79 (Alte Nationalgalerie)
  2. Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1483-85 (Galleria degli Uffizi)
  3. Albrecht Dürer, Large Piece of Turf, 1503 (Albertina)
  4. Giuseppe Cesari (Cavalier d'Arpino), Battle between the Horatii and Curatii, 1612-13 (Capitoline Museum)

Match the images to the correct medium.

  1. Fresco
  2. Watercolor
  3. Tempera
  4. Oil

Show Answers

Answers: 1-D, 2-C, 3-B, 4-A

Works of art
  1. Édouard Manet, In the Conservatory, 1878-79 (Alte Nationalgalerie)
  2. Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1483-85 (Galleria degli Uffizi)
  3. Albrecht Dürer, Large Piece of Turf, 1503 (Albertina)
  4. Giuseppe Cesari (Cavalier d'Arpino), Battle between the Horatii and Curatii, 1612-13 (Capitoline Museum)

Signature Strokes

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Artists develop unique ways to apply paint, their “signature strokes.” One of the great things about the Google Art Project is that you can use the zoom to see these “signature strokes” and learn to recognize the different ways that paint is handled by different artists and in different historical periods.

Art historians study these "signatures" in order to make judgments about the attribution of a work of art. This practice is called connoisseurship. Sometimes these attributions are disputed, or unclear. In the past, art historians relied on their eye, along with archival research, to make judgments. Today we have many more tools at our disposal (including chemical analysis of paint samples, microscopic analysis, and imaging techniques including X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared images) to study objects and make more accurate attributions.

Look closely. Can you read these signature styles? Which eye is from the seventeenth century, before artists experimented more aggressively with color and brushwork to construct the forms of the face?

  1. Vincent van Gogh, Portrait of Joseph Roulin, 1889 (The Museum of Modern Art)
  2. Vincent van Gogh, Self-Portrait, 1887 (Van Gogh Museum)
  3. Vincent van Gogh, La Berceuse (Portrait of Madame Roulin), 1888-89 (Van Gogh Museum)
  4. Frans Hals, Malle Babbe, c. 1633 (Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin)

Show Answers

Answer: #4. Frans Hals used loose brush strokes brilliantly, but his colors remained tied to the natural world, in other words, to what he saw. In contrast, Vincent van Gogh used color in an entirely new way—expressively and structurally.

Works of art
  1. Vincent van Gogh, Portrait of Joseph Roulin, 1889 (The Museum of Modern Art)
  2. Vincent van Gogh, Self-Portrait, 1887 (Van Gogh Museum)
  3. Vincent van Gogh, La Berceuse (Portrait of Madame Roulin), 1888-89 (Van Gogh Museum)
  4. Frans Hals, Malle Babbe, c. 1633 (Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin)

At The National Gallery, read about how Raphael’s painting The Madonna of the Pinks (c. 1506-7) was once accepted as a work by Raphael, then considered a copy, and now confirmed to be a work by that great Renaissance master.

More on “Fakes Mistakes and Discoveries” at The National Gallery.

Hidden Meanings

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Images often speak through subtle symbols to those that know the code. Five hundred years from now, someone who looks at a photograph of an American city, might not recognize the corporate logos we take for granted. In the same way, symbols pervaded the art of the past.

Can you find the symbols below?

  1. Hidden in Gerard David’s Virgin and Child with Saints and Donors is a symbolic representation of the blood of Christ, a reference to the moment during the Last Supper when Christ tells his apostles that the wine is his blood and the bread is his flesh. Can you find this important reference?

    Explore Gerard David’s Virgin and Child with Saint and Donors

    Show Answers

    Answer: The angel in the background on the left is picking grapes from a vine and from which wine is made.

    More on Gerard David from the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

  2. Millais’s Ophelia was considered one of the most accurate renderings of nature ever made. Look closely and you’ll see daisies, poppies, loosestrife, forget-me-nots, pansies, and nettles. But of all the flowers Millais represented, one holds a privileged place for Ophelia—violets. These small flowers symbolize faithfulness, chastity and a young death. Find them and see how the location of the violets emphasize their importance.

    Explore Sir John Everett Millais’s Ophelia

    Show Answers

    Answer: The violets are located in a garland around Ophelia’s neck.

    More on Millais’s use of flower symbolism from Tate Britain. Further reading: “Ophelia – Victimized Woman or Femme Fatale?”

  3. The battle between the Titans and the Gods of Mount Olympus was a central myth for the ancient Greeks—referring to the triumph of order over chaos. The Great Altar of Pergamon depicts this drama on a huge scale. In one segment, Athena, the powerful goddess of war and wisdom vanquishes Alcyoneus as his mother, Gaia, looks on helplessly. Look closely and you’ll see that the goddess Nike tells us who will win the battle.

    Explore the Great Altar of Pergamon

    Show Answers

    Answer: Nike, the personification of Victory, crowns the victorious Athena.

    More on the Hellenistic period in Greek Art from the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

  4. Naturally, when a married couple commissioned an artist to paint their portrait, they wanted to emphasize their devotion and loyalty to one another. The painting by Frans Hals, Portrait of a Couple in a Landscape, contains several symbols of faithfulness, can you find one? Here’s a hint: couples cling to one another.

    Explore Frans Hals, Porait of a Couple in a Landscape

    Show Answers

    Answer: The ivy at the bride’s feet symbolizes her faithfulness. She clings to her husband, just as ivy clings to a support.

    More on Frans Hals from the National Gallery of Art, and from The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

  5. Christian images often use abstract symbols as a means to convey spiritual ideas. The four Evangelists, the authors of the gospels, are often depicted by four symbolic beings, can you find John’s symbol in Nicolas Poussin’s Landscape with Saint John on Patmos?

    Explore Nicolas Poussin’s Landscape with St. John on Patmos

    Show Answers

    Answer: John is symbolized by the eagle. The other three evangelists are symbolically represented as follows: Matthew with an angel, Mark with a lion, and Luke with an Ox.

    More on Poussin from The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

  6. Symbols of the fragility and brevity of life are common in Renaissance painting, reminding viewers that material wealth distracts from the path to eternal salvation. While this painting by Holbein of the Merchant Georg Gisze celebrates the merchant’s earthly success, it also contains a poignant reminder of life’s transience and fragility. How has Holbein given these serious ideas form?

    Explore Hans Holbein the Younger’s The Merchant Georg Gisze

    Show Answers

    Answer: The fading flowers and the glass vase that contains them symbolize the transience and fragility of life.

  7. Symbols can be misleading, here the playful represents the tragic, a testament to the sometimes complex roots of art’s symbolism. Look carefully. Where in this painting of Christ’s childhood did Raphael represent Christ’s future suffering?

    Explore Raphael’s Madonna of the Goldfinch

    Show Answers

    Answer: The goldfinch held by Christ’s elder cousin, John the Baptist, is a symbol of The Passion, the events leading up to the crucifixion. The bird is said to eat thistle, which is seen as a reference to the crown of thorns placed on Christ’s head during his torture.

    More on Raphael from the National Gallery of Art.

  8. Artists of the middle ages were often asked to represent things that can’t be seen, like the soul, God, and heaven. In Giotto’s Entombment of Mary, the Virgin’s physical body is lowered into the tomb. How did Giotto represent her soul?

    Explore Giotto di Bondone’s The Entombment of Mary

    Show Answers

    Answer: Giotto represents Mary’s spirit in the guise of an infant held by Christ.

  9. Burne-Jones conveys the dual nature of hope in his allegory of the same title. Hope is grounded in reality even as she yearns for a different future. She is chained to the ground, but pulls the sky toward her. Burne-Jones gives us an important clue as to her likely fate, can you find this beautiful, deadly symbol?

    Explore Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Hope

    Show Answers

    Answer: The periwinkle flower, seen here strewn about Hope’s feet, was used in antiquity to garland the condemned as they were led to execution.

The Birth of the Avant-Garde

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In the nineteenth century, artists were no longer so tied to the institutions that had long dominated Western culture—the church, the monarchy and the aristocracy. Academies of art wrote the rules and favored a classical style that told a clear story, often based on ancient Greek and Roman literature. The Realists (for example, Courbet and Manet), the Impressionists (Monet, Renoir and Degas), and the Post-Impressionists (Van Gogh, Gauguin) rebelled, and instead chose subjects taken from modern, urban life. Can you identify the academic works and the paintings by the Realists and Impressionists?

  1. Jules Cavelier, Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, 1861 (Musée d'Orsay)
  2. Vincent van Gogh, In the café: Agostina Segatori in Le tambourin, 1887-88 (Van Gogh Museum)
  3. Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland, The Meeting of Dido and Aeneas, exhibited 1766 (Tate Britain)
  4. Édouard Manet, In the Conservatory, 1878-79 (Alte Nationalgalerie)
  1. Academic
  2. Realist/Impressionist

Friday, August 21, 2015

Difference between Super GRUB Disk and Super GRUB2 Disk

Disk uses GRUB2, the differences between GRUB Legacy and GRUB2 also apply to the different versions of Super GRUB Disk: http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/Changes-from-GRUB-Legacy.html#Changes-from-GRUB-Legacy

Perhaps the most notable difference between Super GRUB Disk based on grub legacy and Super GRUB2 Disk is that Super GRUB2 Disk does not write to the disk at all, and so cannot rewrite the MBR. Super GRUB2 Disk can only be used to boot a broken system, it cannot fix it directly. Though once a system is booted, re-installing grub is usually just a matter of running "grub-install /dev/sda".

While there are some features of Super GRUB Disk based on GRUB legacy that will never be included in Super GRUB2 Disk, the opposite is also true. For instance, Super GRUB2 Disk supports booting OSX, loop booting from iso files, booting an OS from USB without USB support in the BIOS, and other features that are not possible with GRUB legacy.

Creating a Bootable Super GRUB2 Disk

To create a bootable Super GRUB2 Disk CD, simpy burn it as a disk image to a blank CD or DVD as you would any other bootable iso. Detailed instructions for burning an iso file in various operating systems can be found at https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto

The Super GRUB2 Disk image is a hybrid image and can also be dd'd directly to a drive to make a bootable drive. Using dd can be dangerous and I plan to make installation to a flash drive easier so I will not document the details here currently.

The image can also be used as a bootable floppy image.

Menu / Features

When Super GRUB2 Disk boots it will present a menu like this:

SG2D 1.98s1 main menu.png

Each option in this menu is explained below.

Detect any OS

This option will search all partitions on all drives for operating systems, and create a menu to choose among the OSs it finds. If you would like to look at or correct a menu entry you can press 'e' to edit the menu entry and ctrl+x to execute your edited entry. Currently supported OSs are GNU/Linux (though support for separate /boot partitions has not yet been implemented), FreeBSD, Mac OSX/Darwin, and all versions of Microsoft Windows.

Detect any GRUB2 configuration file (grub.cfg)

This option will search all partitions for a grub.cfg file and create a menu to choose among the grub.cfg files that it finds, this can be useful if your GRUB2 installation is somehow damaged but the configuration file is correct. Loading a grub.cfg file will load your distribution's grub2 menu within Super GRUB2 Disk.

Detect any GRUB2 installation (even if mbr is overwritten)

This option will search all partitions for grub2 installations (specifically for grub2 core.img files) and create a menu to choose among those that it finds. This can be useful if your mbr has been overwritten by Windows but your GRUB2 installation is otherwise working. While loading your grub.cfg directly (as with the previous option) will also usually allow you to boot, there may be issues loading the config file if it uses features from a newer version of GRUB2 than the one used in Super GRUB2 Disk. Loading a grub2 core.img via this option will load GRUB2 from your distribution as if the mbr were intact and you had booted normally.

Detect loop bootable isos (in /boot-isos or /boot/boot-isos/)

Many GNU/Linux liveCD distributions support loop booting from an iso file, that is you can boot from the iso file without needing to burn it to a CD. This option will search all partitions for either a directory /boot-isos/ or /boot/boot-isos/. It will then find all of the .iso files within those directories and create a menu to choose among them. Not all iso files can be loop booted, as the live distribution itself needs to support this. Each live distribution has its own quirks when it comes to loop booting and needs to be treated specially (unless they ship a Loopback.cfg).

Currently supported Distributions:

  • Grml
  • Parted Magic
  • Sidux
  • Slax Tinycore
  • Ubuntu
  • SystemRescueCd
  • Any distribution that ships with a Loopback.cfg
Enable GRUB2's LVM support

This option enables GRUB2's LVM support with "insmod lvm", if your /boot is on LVM then you will need to choose this option before any of the above "Detect..." options will work. If you do not know what LVM is then this does not apply to you, and you may simply ignore this option.

Enable GRUB2's RAID support

This option enables GRUB2's RAID support, if your /boot is on RAID then you will need to choose this option before any of the above "Detect..." options will work. If you do not know what RAID is then this does not apply to you, and you may simply ignore this option.

With RAID1 GRUB will often be able to read individual members of the array even without the RAID modules loaded, but it doesn't hurt to enable real RAID support as well even with RAID1.

Enable GRUB2's PATA support (to work around BIOS bugs/limitations)

Many computers have buggy BIOSs that do not work properly with large drives, which usually translates to "out of disk" errors from GRUB when you try to boot from large drives without using a separate small /boot partition at the beginning of the drive. GRUB2 has native drivers for accessing drives directly, bypassing the BIOS entirely. Since it's bypassing the BIOS, limitations of your BIOS do not apply and you can access any part of any sized drive.

If you are having problems booting because of an "out of disk" error then selecting this option will likely allow you to boot. To install grub2 with ata support to fix this permanently use "grub-install --disk-module=ata".

Currently GRUB2 only supports the older PATA (also know as ATAPI or IDE) drives. If you have a newer SATA drive then this option will not work for you, but it's also less likely that you will encounter these limitations with newer BIOSs that support SATA. For more information on the limitations of buggy BIOSs with large disks see: http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Large-Disk-HOWTO-4.html .

Enable GRUB2's USB support *experimental*

Many BIOSs do not support booting from USB, with this option you can use Super GRUB2 Disk (booted from a floppy, CD, or other media that your BIOS does support booting from) to boot an operating system from a USB drive despite your BIOSs limitation, using GRUB2's native USB drivers. This option will only allow you boot Free Operating Systems like GNU/Linux or FreeBSD, chainloading will not work with this option and so it cannot be used to boot Windows from a USB drive. This option, as stated, is still experimental.

Enable serial terminal

This option enables GRUB2's serial console support, using the default parameters. This can often be useful for debugging as you can log error messages. If the defaults don't work for your serial hardware you'll need to configure it manually using the "serial" command as documented here: http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/grub.html#serial .

If you don't know what a serial console is then you may simply ignore this option.

List devices/partitions

This option will list all of the devices and partitions that GRUB2 is able to read, with information about them like what filesystem each has. As GRUB2 uses the same module, ext2.mod, to support ext{2,3,4} any extN filesystem will be listed here as being "ext2".

Monday, August 10, 2015

Top 10 blog posts for July 2015 from Linuxlandit & The Conqueror Penguin.

1.- GCompris: Introduction, Minimal Configuration & Installation.
GCompris: Introduction, Minimal Configuration & Installation.
Introduction GCompris is a completely free educational software suite which contains a wide range of activities. It offers various activities aimed at covering a variety of fields such as the functioning of the computer, using the mouse and keyboard, general learning, reading, writing, foreign languages, algebra, as well as various activities such as memory and logic games, scientific

Sunday, August 2, 2015

Zim is a graphical text editor used to maintain a collection of wiki pages.

Zim is a graphical text editor used to maintain a collection of wiki pages.

Each page can contain links to other pages, simple formatting and images. Pages are stored in a folder structure, like in an outliner, and can have attachments.

Creating a new page is as easy as linking to a nonexistent page. All data is stored in plain text files with wiki formatting.

Various plugins provide additional functionality, like a task list manager, an equation editor, a tray icon, and support for version control.

Zim can be used to:

    Keep an archive of notes
    Take notes during meetings or lectures
    Organize task lists
    Draft blog entries and emails
    Do brainstorming

zim5

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Development Release: GhostBSD 10.1-BETA2.

GhostBSD is a user-friendly desktop operating system based on FreeBSD. The project's goal is to create an easy-to-use and familiar workspace that can be used at home or office and for data rescue.
GhostBSD supports a number of popular lightweight desktop environments, including MATE, Xfce, LXDE and Openbox.
It also provides FreeBSD's package management system, Apache's OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice, LibreCAD, and Eclipse/Anjuta development environments for C, C++, Java, JavaScript, Jala and Python.

Changes and fix between 10.1-BETA1 and 10.1-BETA2 include:

  • GhostBSD ISO image is hybrid that can be install on DVD or USB stick
  • XFCE as been added back to the project
  • The installer partition editor have been improved at the UI and at the system level 
  • The user can chose to install the BSD boot manager, Grub boot manager or simply None and use their Linux Grub
  • The installation process failed to copy has been improved and fix
  • Software from pkg or ports can be now installed from live DVD/USB session
  • PCDM Locales and Keyboard Layout are now functional
  • Some Radon/ATI and Intel issue has been fix
  • Qt development tool has been removed from the default system
  • SpiderOak has been removed from the default system
ghostbsd-screen

Top 10 blog posts for June 2015 from Linuxlandit & The Conqueror Penguin.

1.- GCompris: Introduction, Minimal Configuration & Installation.
GCompris: Introduction, Minimal Configuration & Installation.
Introduction GCompris is a completely free educational software suite which contains a wide range of activities. It offers various activities aimed at covering a variety of fields such as the functioning of the computer, using the mouse and keyboard, general learning, reading, writing, foreign languages, algebra, as well as various activities such as memory and logic games, scientific

Sunday, June 21, 2015

How do I clear my web browser's cache, cookies, and history?

    In most computer-based web browsers, to open menus used to clear your cache, cookies, and history, press Ctrl-Shift-Delete (Windows) or Command-Shift-Delete (Mac). 

If this doesn't work, follow the appropriate instructions below.

    If you don't see instructions below for your specific version or browser, search your browser's Help menu for "clear cache".

If you're unsure what browser version you're using, from the Help menu or your browser's menu, select About [browser name].

In Internet Explorer and Firefox, if you don't see the menu bar, press Alt.

Mobile browsers.

Android.

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